Artificial Insemination - a breeding where the sperm is collected from the male and manually inserted in
Breed Standard - is the set of breed descriptions originally laid down by the various parent breed clubs and accepted officially by international bodies.
Breeding terms - generally referred to the terms which are
placed in an agreement when a dog/bitch is sold for breeding purposes.
Breech birth - the positioning of the puppy when the feet come first
down the birth canal, instead of head first. This position can occasionally
present a problem with a puppy getting stuck.
Brood bitch - a female
dog used for breeding purposes.
Canine Brucellois - a highly infectious
venereal disease in dogs, which causes abortion, reabsorption, stillbirths and
Chromosomes - the rod like structures of DNA which come in
39 pairs in dogs on which the genes are located and determine the genetic
features of the dog.
Cleft Palate - a congenital abnormality where
there is a hole in the palate. Culling of all affected puppies is necessary as
they generally cannot nurse correctly.
Congenital - a condition which
exists from birth and is generally inherited.
C section (caesarian) -
surgical removal of the puppies.
Culling - generally refers to the
putting to sleep of puppies who may be malformed or unhealthy.
mother of puppies.
Dog breeding - the practice of mating selected specimens with the intent to maintain or produce specific qualities and characteristics. Breeding relies on the science of genetics, so the breeder with a knowledge of canine genetics, health, and the intended use for the dogs attempts to breed suitable dogs.
Dominant - an inherited trait that will express
itself in an offspring.
Dystocia - refers to difficult or problem
Eclampsia - a condition that may occur in pregnant or
lactating females due to a metabolic upset where the body's calcium becomes
depleted. Signs may include nervousness, panting, vomiting, problems
navigating, temperature rise and convulsions. Extremely serious requiring
immediate veterinary assistance to prevent death.
Fading Puppy Syndrome
- a condition where a previously healthy puppy suddenly stops nursing, becomes
limp and dies fairly quickly. Generally thought to be caused by the
False Pregnancy - a condition where the bitch may show
many of the signs of pregnancy, including milk production but actually produce
Free Whelp - when a mother is able to give birth to the
puppies naturally, without surgical assistance.
Genes - the sequence of
material located along the chromosomes which are the carriers of genetic
Genetic - traits that are inherited by a combination of
genes from the dog's parents.
Genotype - the makeup of a dog's genes,
the blueprint of every trait that it has inherited and may pass on to
subsequent generations. Gestation - the period of time from conception to
birth, on average lasts 62 days.
Heat - a female dog's estrus cycle
usually lasting around 21 days during which time she may be bred. Usually
re-occurs approximately every 6 months.
Herpes virus - a disease which
may affect puppies, often picked up from an infected dam during birth. Signs
are puppies that suddenly become limp, ceasing to nurse, crying continuous and
die within 24 hours. Quite often the whole litter will be infected, so
veterinary assistance should be immediate to save the puppies.
Heterozygous - means two different genes in a pair and is a hybrid and
will not breed pure for a characteristic. In a pair of heterozygous genes one
will be dominant and the other recessive.
Homozygous - means an
identical pair of genes. If a dog has a set of homozygous genes then it will
breed pure for a certain characteristic. A pair of homozygous genes may be
either dominant or recessive.
Horns of the uterus - a dog's uterus is
divided into a Y shape of two separate sections in which the puppies can form.
Puppies can occasionally "traffic jam" if they meet coming into the vagina at
the same time.
Hydrocephalus - a congenital abnormality where there is
water on the brain of the puppy. All affected puppies should be culled.
Inbreeding - the breeding of two closely related individuals within one
generation of a pedigree, ie. brother to sister, father to daughter, etc.
Linebreeding - the breeding of two individuals which are closely
related through a common ancestor.
Mastitis - inflammation of the milk
Metritis - an inflammation of the uterus, usually caused by a
retained placenta or fetus, or introduction of bacteria in the genital tract
during birth by unsanitary practices. Signs are lethargy, smelly vaginal
discharge and abdominal pain. Requires immediate veterinary attention to save
bitch and puppies.
Mate - to breed a dog and bitch.
Outcrossing - the breeding of two individuals with
no common ancestors within a five generation pedigree Pedigree - written family
tree of a dog.
Phenotype - it is how the genes that a dog possess come
together to present the outward appearance of the dog. Pick of litter -
generally the best puppy in the litter as determined by the breeder.
Placenta - tissue which is attached to the mother's uterus during
pregnancy allowing the puppy to receive blood and nutrients while developing.
The placenta detaches from the uterus prior to birth.
traits which are caused by the interaction of more than one gene. Re-absorption
- a process where the pregnant bitch may absorb fetuses back into her body,
possibly due to deformity of the fetus, disease or stress.
an inherited trait that may remain hidden or suppressed.
Season - a
female dog's estrus cycle usually lasting around 21 days during which time she
may be bred. Usually re-occurs approximately every 6 months.
written blueprint or guidelines depicting the important points which will
distinguish a certain breed.
Structure - the construction of a dog. May
vary from breed to breed.
Stud - male dog used for breeding purposes.
Stud Service - the use of a male for breeding purposes usually for
Temperature - a dog's regular temperature ranges between
100 degrees F and 102.5 degrees F. Up to 48 hours prior to whelping a pregnant
bitch will usually have a drop in temperature of around a degree.
Testing (a) - various tests that may be carried out on a dog to check
the health of dog with respect to genetic defects for which a breed is
predisposed. Tests may range for ausucilation of the heart to x-rays,
ultrasound, blood tests, etc. depending upon the nature of the disease being
Testing (b) - a series of test that may be required prior
to breeding to determine that neither the female nor the male has a venereal
disease such as canine brucellois.
Tie - the process during breeding
where the male and female lock together caused by the dog's penis becoming
filled with blood and the sphincter muscles of the bitch's vagina contracting
and holding it in place. May last minutes to hours.
Toxic Milk Sydrome
- a condition when the mother's milk has become toxic to the puppies due to an
infection developed by the dam. Signs are the puppies become bloated, cry, have
greenish diarrhea and a red, sore rectum. Puppies should be removed from the
dam and hand fed. The dam will require veterinary assistance.
feeding - the feeding of a puppy by placing a small tube directly into the
puppy's stomach. Usually required in newborn puppies if the mother is unable to
feed due to death or disease, eg. if the dam dies during a c section. Should
never be attempted without experienced help as there is a real possibility that
the tube can be placed in the lungs in error.
Umbilical cord - the cord
which attaches the puppy to the placenta a llowing nutrients and blood to reach
Umbilical Hernia - an opening in the wall of the stomach
where the umbilical cord had been. Occasionally a little fat may push through,
though there is a small danger that organs could come through. Quite often
heals over as the puppy grows older.
Uterine Inertia - a birth problem
where the mother's uterus does not contract properly to push the puppies
through the birth canal.
Water Bag - sac filled with fluid which
surrounds the puppy while in the uterus. Provides lubrication in the birth
Weaning - the gradual process where the puppies are changed over
from mother's milk to solid foods.
Webbed - means connected by a membrane.
Webbed Toes - are connected by a skin membrane; important for water-retrieving dogs like Labrador Retrievers, providing help in swimming.
Whelping - the procedure during
which a female dog gives birth to puppies.